By Professor Dr. Alfred Franz, Dr. Carsten Stahmer (auth.), Professor Dr. Alfred Franz, Dr. Carsten Stahmer (eds.)
It is basically now not essential to pressure the significance of availing of sound statistical info at the atmosphere. initially .limited to circles of insiders and specialists this message has now totally reached political determination makers and most of the people at huge. during this strategy macro-economics has - sumed a specific function, e.g. while comparing similar monetary implications but in addition while propagating alarming total figures at the damage this new release is doing to our surroundings. for that reason, the necessity is o!>vious to extra advertise the improvement of overseas criteria and - operation within the box of atmosphere information ordinarily and environmental monetary money owed in p- ticular. accordingly, the AiJstrian Statistical Society (ASS) including the Austrian relevant Statistical place of work (ACSO) with excitement hosted the IARIW particular convention on Environmental fiscal debts, in may possibly 1991. those associations are equally happy that now this ebook at the lawsuits of this convention could be offered. They attach this with thankful due to all those that contributed to the profitable crowning glory of this paintings, particularly the authors and the editors. The impact turns out warranted that the end result of this coordinated total endeavour was once greater than simply higher mutual knowing, viz. anything like an expanding cognizance of the typical - nominator tending to expand.
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Extra resources for Approaches to Environmental Accounting: Proceedings of the IARIW Conference on Environmental Accounting, Baden (near Vienna), Austria, 27–29 May 1991
When the use of an environmental function by an activity is at the expense of the use of another (or the same) function by another activity, or threatens to be so in the future, loss of function occurs. We 43 call this competition between functions, and make a distinction between qualitative, spatial and quantitative competition. When competition of functions occurs, the environment acquires an economic aspect. Economics boils down to the problem of choice with regard to the use of scarce alternatively applicable means for the satisfaction of classifiable wants (the subject matter).
All these seven factors play a part in economic action. They constantly have to be weighed against each other whenever the desired quantity or quality of a given factor is at the expense of one or more other factors. Seen from the point of view of those who choose, whether citizens or politicians, there is thus an unbreakable link between all the factors influencing welfare. 51 From this it follows that no judgement can be given on the development of welfare in the course of time, among other things because the factors influencing welfare cannot be brought under a common denominator.
To this a fourth class can be added. 4. The expenditure on measures that compensate or restore the losses of environmental functions (see Section 2) or prevent losses environmental functions from occurring. These expenditures are as intermediate deliveries insofar as the measures are of entered taken and directly paid for by private firms, but as final consumption when the measures are paid for by private households or the government and 50 also when they are taken by private firms imposed by the government.
Approaches to Environmental Accounting: Proceedings of the IARIW Conference on Environmental Accounting, Baden (near Vienna), Austria, 27–29 May 1991 by Professor Dr. Alfred Franz, Dr. Carsten Stahmer (auth.), Professor Dr. Alfred Franz, Dr. Carsten Stahmer (eds.)