By John Holm
This textbook is a transparent and concise creation to the research of the way new languages come into being. beginning with an summary of the field's easy thoughts, it surveys the hot languages that built due to the ecu growth to the Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific. lengthy misunderstood as "bad" models of ecu languages, at the present time such types as Jamaican Creole English, Haitian Creole French and New Guinea Pidgin are famous as special languages of their personal correct.
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Dieses Buch entstand aus Vorlesungen, die ich in den lahren 1970 bis 1973 an den Universitiiten Saarbriicken, Erlangen-Niirnberg und Frankfurt gehalten habe. Das Ziel des Buches ist es, die Grundlagen der Berechenbarkeit und des Rechen aufWandes auf der foundation abstrakter Maschinenmodelle aufzubauen, wobei beim Be griff Maschine stets eine sequentielle Arbeitsweise vorausgesetzt wird.
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Extra info for An introduction to pidgins and creoles
The earliest known attestation of any creole language is from Martinique, dated 1671 (Carden et al. 1990, published in McWhorter 1998:800). It includes unequivocal features of modern Caribbean Creole French such as the preverbal anterior marker té and the post-nominal determiner là: Moi té tini peur bête là I ANT have fear animal DET The earliest known Portuguese creole text is a 33-sentence conversation in Malayo-Portuguese (reproduced in part in Holm 1988–9:294–5) published in 1692 by Georg Meister, a German who had been in the East Indies with the Dutch.
There are many questions about the process of creolization that remain unresolved. Is it qualitatively diﬀerent from the expansion of a pidgin that does not acquire native speakers? How crucial is the uprooting of those who begin the new speech community? There are creoles whose speakers were never uprooted, such as the Portuguese-based varieties in Asia (Holm 1988– 9:284–98), although in a sense the Portuguese fathers of the ﬁrst generations were indeed uprooted and their racially mixed progeny formed not only a new speech community but also a new ethnic group.
Still more remote must be the inﬂuence of African on Creole grammar. It is rather in the phonetic structure of the Creole, in the dislike of an accumulation of consonants, the preference, especially marked in the Negro English of Surinam, for a ﬁnal vowel, that such inﬂuence may with more likelihood be traced. (124) This appears to be the ﬁrst salvo in a battle that is not yet over – whether the Atlantic creoles are European or African languages – the most extreme positions on which were taken by Faine (1936) and Sylvain (1936) respectively.
An introduction to pidgins and creoles by John Holm