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ISBN-10: 3662442574

ISBN-13: 9783662442579

A heritage of chinese language technological know-how and expertise (Volumes 1, 2 & three) offers forty four person lectures, starting with historic chinese language technology and expertise within the means of Human Civilizations and an outline of chinese language technology and know-how, and carrying on with with in-depth discussions of a number of concerns within the historical past of technological know-how and the Needham Puzzle, interspersed with issues on Astronomy, mathematics, Agriculture and drugs, The 4 nice innovations, and numerous technological parts heavily relating to garments, nutrition, look after and transportation.
This ebook is the main authoritative paintings at the background of chinese language technological know-how and know-how. it's the Winner of the China e-book Award, the Shanghai booklet Award (1st prize), and the Classical China foreign Publishing venture (GAPP, basic management of Press and book of China) and provides a necessary source for educational researchers and non-experts alike.

It originated with a chain of forty four lectures offered to most sensible chinese language leaders, which obtained very confident suggestions. Written by way of best chinese language students of their respective fields from the Institute for the background of traditional Sciences, chinese language Academy of Sciences and lots of different revered chinese language enterprises, the e-book is meant for scientists, researchers and postgraduate scholars operating within the background of technological know-how, philosophy of technology and know-how, and similar disciplines. Yongxiang Lu is a professor, former president and member of the chinese language Academy of Sciences (CAS) and chinese language Academy of Engineering (CAE), and vice president of the nationwide Congress of China.

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3–4 (1991), pp. 279–301; Li, Ch’ing tai ch’üan shih, pp. 9–10, 43–5; and Kawachi Yoshihiro, Mindai joshinshi no kenkyu¯, Oriental Research Series No. 46 (Kyoto, 1996), pp. 141–70. For a German translation of the part in the Ch’ing shih kao that deals with the Chien-chou Jurchens during the Ming (under Ahacu, in the ninth biography), see Hauer, “Neue Nachrichten,” pp. 612–42; Serruys, Sino-Jürcˇed relations, pp. 38–9; and Lin, “Manchuria in the Ming empire,” pp. 18–20. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 14 gertraude roth li given titles of commanders (chih-hui shih) and commissioners-in-chief (tu-tu).

The conquest elite centered on imperial relatives and included Manchus, Mongols, and Han-chün bannermen. They vied for power and privilege with the learned elite, men who had passed civil service examinations and maintained social prestige even when not holding official position. One can find many more examples of balanced dichotomies or tensions in nearly every aspect of Ch’ing government, society, and culture during the century from 1680 to 1780. Many decades ago, Ch’ü T’ung-tsu analyzed the interaction of the many groups involved in local government under the Ch’ing.

Recognizing Yehe independence from the Hada, the Ming government gave them separate border markets. From then on the Yehe did business at the North Customs Barrier (Chen-pei-kuan, or Pei-kuan), northeast of K’ai-yüan, and the Hada traded at the South Customs Barrier 41 42 43 Earlier the Hai-hsi Jurchens were also known as Hu-la-wen, or Hu-lan Jurchens, because their first guard was on the Hulan River, north of Harbin. The world ula means “river” in Manchu. By itself ula refers to the upper Sungari River around Kirin, which is where the Ula people lived.

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A History of Chinese Science and Technology, Volume 1

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